Kicman AT. Pharmacology of anabolic steroids. Brit J Pharmacol. 2008;154(3):502–21. https://doi.org/10.1038/bjp.2008.165.
Bhasin S, Storer TW, Berman N, Callegari C, Clevenger B, Phillips J, Bunnell TJ, Tricker R, Shirazi A, Casaburi R. The effects of supraphysiologic doses of testosterone on muscle size and strength in normal men. N Engl J Med. 1996;335(1):1–7. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJM199607043350101.
Hakansson A, Mickelsson K, Wallin C, Berglund M. Anabolic androgenic steroids in the general population: user characteristics and associations with substance use. Eur Addict Res. 2012;18(2):83–90. https://doi.org/10.1159/000333037.
Pope HG, Kanayama G, Athey A, Ryan E, Hudson JI, Baggish A. The lifetime prevalence of anabolic-androgenic steroid use and dependence in Americans: current best estimates. Am J Addiction. 2014;23(4):371–7. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1521-0391.2013.12118.x.
Buckman JF, Farris SG, Yusko DA. A national study of substance use behaviors among NCAA male athletes who use banner performance enhancing substances. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2013;131(1-2):50–5. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2013.04.023.
Fijan A, Eftekhari MH, Dashtabi A. The prevalence of anabolic androgenic steroid misuse and its associated factors among bodybuilders in Shiraz, Iran. Int J Nutr Sci. 2018;3(3):151–6.
Pasharavesh L, Ramandi M, Khoushbou S, Rezaei M, Rezvani S, Abbasi MR, et al. Prevalence of doping agents’ abuse and male bodybuilders’ knowledge about their side effects in Kermanshah gymnasiums (2004). J Kermanshah Univ Med Sci (behbood). 2008;11(4):418–27.
Smit DL, de Hon O, Venhuis BJ, den Heijer M, de Ronde W. Baseline characteristics of the HAARLEM study: 100 male amateur athletes using anabolic androgenic steroids. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2020;30(3):531–9. https://doi.org/10.1111/sms.13592.
Gheddar L, Ameline A, Raul J-S, Kintz P. Designer anabolic steroids: a challenge for toxicologists. Toxicol Anal Clin. 2019;31(4):293–7. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.toxac.2019.07.001.
van Amsterdam J, Opperhuizen A, Hartgens F. Adverse health effects of anabolic–androgenic steroids. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol. 2010;57(1):117–23. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.yrtph.2010.02.001.
Tahtamouni LH, Mustafa NH, Alfaouri AA, Hassan IM, Abdalla MY, Yasin SR. Prevalence and risk factors for anabolic-androgenic steroid abuse among Jordanian collegiate students and athletes. Eur J Public Health. 2008;18(6):661–5. https://doi.org/10.1093/eurpub/ckn062.
Saati Asr MH, Bashirian S, Heidari Moghadam R, Barati M, Moeini B. Personal and psychosocial factors associated with anabolic-androgenic steroid use among Iranian male bodybuilders. J Subst Abus. 2018;23(4):390–5.
Barati M, Allahverdipour H, Hidarnia A, Niknami S, Bashirian S. Belief-based tobacco smoking scale: evaluating the psychometric properties of the theory of planned behavior’s constructs. Health Promot Perspect. 2015;5(1):59–71. https://doi.org/10.15171/hpp.2015.008.
Gerrard M, Gibbons FX, Houlihan AE, Stock ML, Pomery EA. A dual-process approach to health risk decision making: the prototype willingness model. Dev Rev. 2008;28(1):29–61. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dr.2007.10.001.
Gibbons FX, Gerrard M, Blanton H, Russell DW. Reasoned action and social reaction: willingness and intention as independent predictors of health risk. J Pers Soc Psychol. 1998;74(5):1164–80. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-35126.96.36.1994.
Dal Cin S, Worth KA, Gerrard M, Gibbons FX, Stoolmiller M, Wills TA, Sargent JD. Watching and drinking: expectancies, prototypes, and friends’ alcohol use mediate the effect of exposure to alcohol use in movies on adolescent drinking. Health Psychol. 2009;28(4):473–83. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0014777.
Abedini S, MorowatiSharifabad M, Kordasiabi MC, Ghanbarnejad A. Predictors of non-hookah smoking among high-school students based on prototype/willingness model. Health Promot Perspect. 2014;4(1):46–53. https://doi.org/10.5681/hpp.2014.006.
Hukkelberg SS, Dykstra JL. Using the prototype/willingness model to predict smoking behaviour among Norwegian adolescents. Addict Behav. 2009;34(3):270–6. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.addbeh.2008.10.024.
Kanayama G, Brower KJ, Wood RI, Hudson JI, Pope HG Jr. Anabolic–androgenic steroid dependence: an emerging disorder. Addiction. 2009;104(12):1966–78. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1360-0443.2009.02734.x.
Toohey JV. Non-medical drug use among intercollegiate athletes at five American universities. Bull Narc UNODC. 1978;30(3):61–4.
Biglarian A, Bakhshi E, Rahgozar M, Karimloo M. Comparison of artificial neural network and logistic regression in predicting of binary response for medical data the stage of disease in gastric cancer. J North Khorasan Univ Med Sci. 2012;3(5):15–21.
Stylianou N, Akbarov A, Kontopantelis E, Buchan I, Dunn KW. Mortality risk prediction in burn injury: comparison of logistic regression with machine learning approaches. Burns. 2015;41(5):925–34. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.burns.2015.03.016.
Yang L, Liu S, Tsoka S, Papageorgiou LG. A regression tree approach using mathematical programming. Expert Syst Appl. 2017;78:347–57. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eswa.2017.02.013.
Hastie T, Tibshirani R, Friedman JH. The elements of statistical learning: data mining, inference, and prediction. 2nd ed. New York: Springer; 2009. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-0-387-84858-7.
Zhang H, Singer BH. Recursive partitioning and applications: Springer Science & Business Media; 2010. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4419-6824-1.
Asr M, Moghadam R, Bashirian S, Barati M. Effectiveness of educational program based on Prototype Willingness Model on preventing and decreasing anabolic-androgenic steroids among male bodybuilders. Koomesh. 2018;20(2):263–73.
Behnampour N, Hajizadeh E, Semnani S, Zayeri F. The introduction and application of classification tree model for determination of risk factor for esophageal cancer in Golestan province. Jorjani Biomed J. 2013;1(2):38–46.
Liaw A, Wiener M. Classification and regression by randomForest. R News. 2002;2(3):18–22.
Rashidlamir A, Dehbashi M, Taghizadeh V. Study the prevalence amount supplements are allowed authorized and unauthorized between athletes men bodybuilders and pavrlyftyng. Shomal J Manage Physiol Sport. 2014;2(1):1–13.
Al Ghobain M, Konbaz M, Almassad A, Alsultan A, Al Shubaili M, AlShabanh O. Prevalence, knowledge and attitude of prohibited substances use (doping) among Saudi sport players. Subst Abuse Treat Prev Policy. 2016;11(1):1–6. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13011-016-0058-1.
Bijeh N, Dehbashi M, Saghi M. Studying the amount of prevalence awareness and complications of anabolic steroids among the male athletes in Mashhad city. J Pract Stud Biosci Sport. 2014;4(2):78–89.
Zakeri A. The frequency of infertility following anabolic steroid in bodybuilders in Tehran in 2010. Iran J Obstet Gynecol Infertil. 2012;15(2):31–8.
Patiro SPS, Dharmmesta BS, Nugroho SS, Sutikno B. Extended theory of planned behavior as model of anabolic androgenic steroid use by Indonesian bodybuilders. Gadjah Mada Univ. 2016;31(1):99–118.
Whitaker L, Long J, Petróczi A, Backhouse S. Using the prototype willingness model to predict doping in sport. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2014;24(5):398–405.
Barati M, Allahverdipour H, Hidarnia A, Niknami S. Predicting tobacco smoking among male adolescents in Hamadan city, west of Iran in 2014: an application of the prototype willingness model. J Res Health Sci. 2015;15(2):113–8.
Barati M, Allahverdipour H, Moinei B, Farhadinasab A, Mahjub H. Evaluation of theory of planned behavior-based education in prevention of MDMA (ecstasy) use among university students. Med J Tabriz Uni Med Sci. 2011;33(3):20–9.
Eslami AA, Jalilian F, Ataee M, Alavijeh MM, Mahboubi M, Afsar A, Aghaei A. Intention and willingness in understanding Ritalin misuse among Iranian medical college students: a cross-sectional study. Global J Health Sci. 2014;6(6):43–53. https://doi.org/10.5539/gjhs.v6n6p43.
Todd J, Mullan B. Using the theory of planned behaviour and prototype willingness model to target binge drinking in female undergraduate university students. Addict Behav. 2011;36(10):980–6. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.addbeh.2011.05.010.
Bashirian S, Hidarnia A, Allahverdipour H, Hajizadeh E. Application of the theory of planned behavior to predict drug abuse related behaviors among adolescents. J Res Health Sci. 2012;1(12):54–60.
Litchfield RA, White KM. Young adults’ willingness and intentions to use amphetamines: an application of the theory of reasoned action. E-J Appl Psychol. 2006;2(1):1–8.
Hammer JH, Vogel DL. Assessing the utility of the willingness/prototype model in predicting help-seeking decisions. J Couns Psychol. 2013;60(1):83–97. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0030449.
Ajzen I. The theory of planned behaviour: reactions and reflections. Psychol Health. 2011;26(9):1113–27.
Beck L, Ajzen I. Predicting dishonest actions using the theory of planned behavior. J Res Pers. 1991;25(3):285–301. https://doi.org/10.1016/0092-6566(91)90021-H.